Basic Terms of Shinto 神道基本用語集
詳細表示 (Complete Article)
Harae,Harai,Nakatomi no harae,O-harai,Shubatsu,Misogi-harae
|Text|| Shinto purification ceremonies. Prayers are offered for the removal of all sin, pollution, and misfortune. The body and mind are purified and restored to a condition worthy of approaching the gods. The traditional pronunciation is harae, but today the word is usually pronounced harai. The origin of harae is described in the Kojiki myth of the god Izanagi no mikoto (see Izanagi no mikoto and Izanami no mikoto), who is said to have washed in order to remove pollution after visiting the land of the dead (yomi). Harae is performed at the beginning of all religious ceremonies and whenever a specific need arises. In ancient times, two types of harae, called yoshi-harae and ashi-harae (literally, purification of good and purification of evil), seem to have been performed, but the meaning of the two terms is not clear. The Ôharae is a major ceremony performed twice a year nationwide and also on other contingent occasions when deemed necessary. In Shinto, not only are the sins, pollutions, and misfortunes of the individual removed, but also evil and misfortune can be removed from a whole nation, life renewed, and the blessings of the gods brought down. The norito used at the Ôharae is called Ôbarae no kotoba. It was the duty of the Nakatomi clan to recite it, and so it is also called by the name Nakatomi no harae. Ôharae today is performed on the last days of June and December of each year.
Harae is one of the most important ceremonies in Shinto, and various forms have developed, such as nagoshi no harae (purification performed on the last day of the sixth month by the lunar calendar, and marking the middle of the year), and minohi no harae (purification performed on days of the snake in the third month of the lunar calendar). There is also a common practice of reciting alone or in unison, with slight changes, the Ôbarae no kotoba, which is regarded as a sacred liturgy. Shubatsu is a harae ceremony performed by priests before a ceremony or religious rite; the ceremony of temizu (purification of hands and mouth - also see misogi) is performed, the norito for harae is recited, and a wand called a haraigushi is waved.