Encyclopedia of Shinto

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カテゴリー1: 8. Schools, Groups, and Personalities
カテゴリー2: Modern Sectarian Groups
A Shinto-derived religious movement founded by Kanada Tokuaki (1863-1919). Kanada was born in Osaka Prefecture on September 20, 1863, as the eldest son of Kanada Tokuhei. He subsequently succeeded to head of the Kanada household of relatives. In 1871 he became an apprentice to Asaka Kyūhei and was strongly influenced by the latter's faith in the Buddhist saint Kōbō Daishi (Kūkai). Kanada is said to have possessed paranormal spiritual powers such as being able to receive prophecies from an early age. From 1875 on he began to perform religious austerities at Mount Inunaki. In 1882 he became independent of his apprenticeship, opening a hardware store in Sakai. He continued in his devotion to Kōbō Daishi, visiting Mount Kōya and performing the eighty-eight-stage pilgrimage around Shikoku island. He also engaged in spiritual healing, divination and prophecies. In 1904 he acquired the qualification of a religious teacher in Ontakekyō, and in 1911 gave up his business to concentrate on religious teaching.
In 1912 Kanada established the Ontakekyō Tokumitsu Daikyōkai, shortly thereafter proclaiming "Eighteen articles of divine instruction" (shinkun jūhakkajō) received through divine revelation. He collected followers through such activities as spiritual healing, which was carried out through his mioshie (a form of spiritual teaching, which tells the sick to reflect on the faults of their own mind), and the practice of ofurikae ("transfer") in which he took into his own body the illnesses of others.
In 1917 the movement transferred its affiliation to the umbrella organization Shintō Honkyoku (subsequently known as Shintō Taikyō). When Tokumitsu died in 1919, disputes arose over the issue of succession between the founder's faction, centered on his heir, Kanada Tokumitsu (written with different characters), and a faction comprising people who had joined the movement for its doctrine. In due course, the latter group gained power, with first Yamauchi Tokumasa and then Ishii Toku'un serving as leader. The movement's overall strength, however, diminished as a result. Moreover, Hashimoto Satomi, who had been a senior figure in Hito no Michi Kyōdan (see PL Kyōdan), the movement formed by Miki Tokuharu, broke away from Miki's movement during the time of Tokuharu's son Tokuchika.
In 1946, Hashimoto persuaded the Tokumitsu Daikyōkai to break away from Shintō Taikyō, and he thus established the Shintō Tokumitsu Kyōkai Honbu. When Hashimoto next founded the Shizensha ("Shrine of Nature"), however, Ikoma Tokubun, who considered the legitimate spiritual leaders of the movement to be founder Kanada Tokumitsu's second son Tokuyuki and eldest daughter Toshiko, led the Mishima branch of the movement into secession, and in 1948 set up the Tokumitsukyō Honbu with Ikoma Setsu as its head. It became a registered religious corporation under the Religious Corporations Ordinance (Shūkyō Hōjinrei) in 1949, finally changing its name to Tokumitsukyō. In 1952, it was incorporated under the Religious Corporations Law (Shūkyō Hōjinhō).
Headquarters: 2-29 Minami-chō, Mishima City, Shizuoka Prefecture
Nominal membership: approximately 1,000 (M)

—Fukushima Shinkichi

Pronunciation in Japanese/用語音声

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