Encyclopedia of Shinto

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カテゴリー1: 5. Rites and Festivals
カテゴリー2: State Rites
"Distribution of ritual offerings." In the ancient era, the distribution of offerings by the Department of Divinities (Jingikan) to officially designated shrines, where they were dedicated to the enshrined deities as part of state observances. The first mention of hanpei appears in the Chronicles of Japan (Nihon shoki) under the entry for year 670, which reads: "Beside the mountain well, [they] prepare a resting place for the myriad kami, and distribute the offerings." Another record appears in the section of the Engi Shiki dealing with the procedures for the Kinen sai and Tsukinami sai celebrations. Offerings were also sent to shrines for the Niiname sai, which was patterned on the Tsukinami sai. In keeping with their role within the Department of Divinities, the Inbe clan had the primary responsibility for ensuring the distribution of ritual offerings, while the Nakatomi clan was in charge of administering ritual prayers (norito). Hanpei was also practiced at the provincial level, with provincial governments designating and distributing alms to shrines within their jurisdictions in much the same way the Department of Divinities did at the statel level. The custom was discontinued after the collapse of the Ritsuryō administrative system.
— Inoue Nobutaka

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