Basic Terms of Shinto 神道基本用語集
詳細表示 (Complete Article)
|Text|| Sect Shinto. Religious movements which, while adhering to the mainstream of Japan's native religion, have also resulted in the formation of independent sects oriented toward individual religious experience. In the Tokugawa period, the shogunate extended official protection to established religions, which resulted in the formalization of religion. However, the long period of peace led to popular practices such as spontaneous mass pilgrimages to Ise no Jingû and regular pilgrimages to other famous shrines. The objects of prayer were such worldly benefits as the curing of disease, protection from disasters, riches, and success. As the established religions became isolated from the religious demands of the common people, the growth of new religions was accelerated. These are the social conditions in which Sect Shinto developed, with founders as well as believers of the movements coming largely from the class of common people. In the Meiji period, these movements were organized into the following thirteen main sects. The date of formal recognition as a sect is indicated in parentheses.
-Fusôkyô (1882) Organized by SHISHINO Nakaba after the Meiji Restoration.
-Izumo Ôyashirokyô (1882) Organized by SENGE Takatomi after the Meiji Restoration.
-Jikkôkyô (1882): Organized by SHIBATA Hanamori after the Meiji Restoration.
-Konkôkyô (1900): Founded by AKAZAWA Bunji in the late Tokugawa period.
-Kurozumikyô (1876): Founded by KUROZUMI Munetada in the late Tokugawa period.
-Misogikyô (1894): Founded by INOUE Masakane in the late Tokugawa period.
-Ontakekyô, formerly known as Mitakekyô (1882): Organized by SHIMOYAMA Ôsuke after the Meiji Restoration.
-Shinrikyô (1894): Founded by SANO Tsunehiko after the Meiji Restoration.
-Shinshûkyô (1882): Founded by YOSHIMURA Masamochi after the Meiji Restoration.
-Shintô Shûsei-ha; (1876): Founded by NITTA Kuniteru after the Meiji Restoration.
-Shintô Taikyô, known before the second world war simply as Shintô (1886): Organized as a coordinate center of Shinto sects after the Meiji Restoration.
-Taiseikyô (1882): Organized by HIRAYAMA Seisai after the Meiji Restoration.
-Tenrikyô (1908): Founded by NAKAYAMA Miki in the late Tokugawa period.
In this process of organization, many small splinter sects were forcibly incorporated into one of the major sects. After the second world war, however, they resumed independent activities.