- Encyclopedia of Shinto
Encyclopedia of Shinto
詳細表示 (Complete Article)
|カテゴリー1：||5. Rites and Festivals|
The characters for ‘shinkō' can also be read ‘miyuki', indicating a rite concerned with journey of the kami out of the sanctuary. The shinkōsai is frequently held as part of the reisai, as stipulated in Jinja saishiki.There are three types of shinkōsai : 1. rites occurring within the shrine precincts (keidai); 2. rites held at a tabisho or tongū (temporary shrines for traveling gods similar to mikoshi); and 3. rites in which the kami tour their territory. Shinkōsai can also be classified into rites held annually on prescribed days and rites held on alternate years or at specific intervals. According to their significance, shinkōsai can be grouped into: (1) rites of welcoming the deity which have become established as annual festivals in shinkōsai form; (2) rites based on traditions associated with the enshrined deity (saijin); (3) rites for driving away epidemic deities (ekijin) established as annual festivals; (4) rites aiming to entertain the kami; and (5) rites in which a kami visits places to which he is in some way or another connected. Many shinkōsai involve mikoshi. In two of Edo's most prominent shinkōsai, the Kanda and Sannō Festivals, mikoshi play a central role. During the Edo period, the Kanda and Sannō Festivals were held on alternate years. When one of the two festivals was celebrated, the other would take place as a small-scale "shadow" festival (kagematsuri) instead of the full shinkōsai. Since the mikoshi used in the Sannō Festival was taken into the Edo castle to be shown to the shogun, the festival was also called tenkasai or goyōsai. The shinkōsai of the Samukawa Shrine in Kanagawa Prefecture is known as hamaorisai because the mikoshi is carried into the sea. At the kangensai of the Itsukushima Shrine in Hiroshima Prefecture, the mikoshi is placed aboard a special boat, and music is played for the entertainment of the kami. For this reason, the observance is called a ‘boat festival'. it is also called a ship matsuri. Other famous boat festivals include Tsushima Tennōsai of Tsushima City in Aichi Prefecture and the Aofushigaki rite of the Miho Shrine in Shimane Prefecture. From March 19 through 23, all the mikoshi of the Noto area participate in a procession at the Kunimuke Festival of the Keta Shrine in Ishikawa Prefecture. This observance is based on the myth of the pacification of the land by the deity Ōnamuchi no Mikoto. The Gion Festival the Yasaka Shrine has exerted a significant influence on summer festivals across the country. The festival, which originated as an attempt to ward off epidemics, features a procession of hefty floats (yamahoko). The mikoshi parade involves taking them to the banks of the Kamo River to be washed. Many other kinds of shinkōsai shaped by the legends and traditions associated with particular shrines can be found throughout the country.
— Mogi Sadasumi