Encyclopedia of Shinto

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カテゴリー1: 8. Schools, Groups, and Personalities
カテゴリー2: Personalities
Shikida Toshiharu
Text (1817-192)
Scholar of National Learning (kokugaku) of the late Edo and Meiji periods. Born on the twentieth day of the seventh month of 1817 in the village of Shikida in Buzen Province's Usa District (present-day Usa City, Oita Prefecture), he was the second son of the Shinto priest Miyamoto Kanetsugu of the shrine Futabayama Jinja. In his five years of itinerant studies in several provinces, he became a student of Hoashi Banri and Watanabe Tsunaaki. In 1839 he was adopted as the son-in-law of Yoshimatsu Noto no Kami, priest of Hiruko Jinja (in the city of Yokkaichi, Ise Province, present-day Mie Prefecture). Upon adoption his name became Yoshimatsu Ise no Kami, but he changed his name to Shikida Toshiharu in 1846.
Shikida traveled to Edo for study in 1853, and in 1863 was appointed instructor at the Wagaku Kōdansho, a private academy for Japanese classics, where his associates included Suzuki Shigetane and Kurokawa Harumura. He became an instructor at the Osaka Institute for National Learning, Kokugaku Kōshūjo, in 1869. After the dismantling of the domain-based ruling system and the establishment of the Prefecture-based national government, Shikida retired to the village of Kadoma in Kawachi Province's Matta District (present-day Osaka Prefecture). In 1881, he was appointed headmaster of Ise's Jingū Kyōin (Grand Shrine Teaching Institute) and was subsequently chosen to become the first headmaster of the newly-established Jingū Kōgakkan (now Kōgakkan University). Shortly thereafter, however, Shikida became seriously ill and returned to Kawachi in 1884. In 1888, he opened a private schoolhouse in the Horie Miikebashi district of Osaka's Nishi Ward, where he taught kokugaku. His studies illuminated new aspects of classical texts and made new contributions to Japanese intellectual history. He died at the age of eighty-six on January 30, 1902. He was the author of numerous works, many of which appear in Takanashi Kōji's compendium Shikida Toshiharu-ō den (Teachings of the Venerable Shikida Toshiharu). Shikida's original manuscripts are currently stored at the library Jingū Bunko in Ise.

—Shibata Shin'ichi

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