|Atsuta Shrine College
|A training college for Shintō priests run by Atsuta Shrine (Atsuta Jingū), under authorization from the Association of Shintō Shrines (Jinja honchō). The college, when founded in 1950, was originally known as Atsuta jingū futsū shinshoku yōsei sho (Atsuta Shrine Regular Trainin...
|One term for shrine monks ( shasō ) performing Buddhist rites at shrines and jingūji (shrine-related temples) during the era of shinbutsu shūgō (the amalgamation of Shintō and Buddhism). The term bettō is usually understood to refer to the head of one institution who also serves as t...
|A ritual performed by order of the emperor and for which a special envoy ( chokushi ) is sent to a shrine to read a prayer ( saimon ) before the deity and present heihaku offerings. The term chokusai cannot be found in old records or literature and first appears in the phrase "shrines ...
|A messenger who delivered imperial commands. Messengers who were dispatched to shrines on the occasion of either an ordinary or an extraordinary rite were generally called tsukai (messengers), saishi (festival messengers), or hōbeishi . The Taihō Code (702) stipulated that for ...
|Dewa Sanzan Priest Training Institute
|(Dewa Sanzan Jinja Shinshoku Yōseisho) A Jinja Honchō-approved training institute for shrine priests managed by Dewa Sanzan Jinja. It was established in 1962 as a B-rank institution offering a one-year course for trainees ( gonseikai katei ), but in 1980 it launched a two-year pro...
|Procedures of the Engi Era . Engishiki is a compendium of rules and procedures for implementing ritsu (penal codes), ryō (administrative codes), and kyaku (supplementary laws). It comprised fifty scrolls, and approximately three thousand and some hundreds of articles. Engishi...
|A pre-war shrine rank comprised of prefectural shrines ( kensha ) and municipal district shrines ( fusha ). In the modern shrine ranking system established in 1871, shrines were divided into kansha (state shrines) and shosha (general shrines). Shrines in the fukensha category occ...
|Rural District Shrines. A shrine rank instituted in the modern shrine ranking system. The modern shrine ranking system was divided into the two general categories of kansha (state shrines) and shosha (assorted shrines). Gōsha were included in the latter category below the munici...
|One rank in the hierarchy of shrine priests ( shinshoku ). The chief priest among those serving at a particular shrine. At most shrines today, the gūji ordinarily serves as head ritualist, as well as being responsible for the shrine's maintenance and financial management, and gener...
|A term for Shinto priests ( shinshoku ), usually a rank beneath kannushi and negi . The etymology of the term is unclear, but according to Tanigawa Kotosuga's Wakun no shiori , it refers to shaking a garment to quell disaster or catastrophe. Motoori Norinaga explained it as being relat...
|A type of priestly rank established under the ancient Ritsuryō system. The " hafuri " in hafuribe derives from a quote found in Jōgen's commentary on the Book of Rites ( Raiki ) reading "one associated with the kami ." The " be " is said to have been attac...
|The Hall of Eight Deities. Under the ritsuyō system, this hall was located in the western hall of the Jingikan (Department of Divinities) and it enshrined the eight tutelary deities of the emperor. According to Engishiki ( Procedures of the Engi Era) of 967, the names of enshrined dei...
|Offerings of heihaku made to shrines and imperial tombs by order of the emperor. The term also refers to an envoy who bore these offerings, (alternatively called the hōbeishi ). The characters can also be read as hōhei . Sometimes this was offered to only one shrine, while on other occa...
|The general name for envoys who carry offerings ( heihaku ) to royal mausolea and kami at the command of the emperor. There are various types of envoy including the general category of hōbeishi , reiheishi (who carry offerings to Ise Shrine) and yoshinohōbeishi (who serve as envoys to ...
|Ichinomiya / Sōja
|Ichinomiya , (literally first shrine) is a shrine occupying the highest rank among the shrines of a province. A sōja is the shrine established in each province which collectively enshrines all of the deities being worshipped at other shrines within the province. Sōja was originall...
|(Ōsei fukko) The overthrow of the Tokugawa shogunate and the installation of a system of direct rule by the emperor. The inspiration for an imperial restoration and the movement toward direct imperial rule spread among activists following the signing of the trade treaties with som...
|The kuni no miyatsuko of the ancient province of Izumo (the eastern portion of present-day Shimane Prefecture). Even after the dissolution of the Ritsuryō system, the term has persisted as a title for the position of head ritualist at Izumo Taisha through to the present day. The term ...
|Hereditary priestly clans such as the Nakatomi, the Inbe, the Urabe and the Sarume who served the royal court from ancient times. Except for the Urabe, the members of these clans were all said to be descendants of kami who joined in assuaging Amaterasu when she hid herself in the heaven...
|The Jingiin (Institute of Divinities) was an organ for the administration of shrine affairs attached to the Home Ministry; it was created according to Imperial Rescript 736 on November 9, 1940. The director of the Institute was the Home Minister who oversaw an assistant director an...
|The "Agency of the Department of Divinities" ( Jingikandai ) emerged to carry out a portion of the functions and powers of the archaic Department of Divinities ( Jingikan ), after these functions underwent a process of reduction and deterioration. Particularly from 160...